ACM Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI), 2018
Programmers must draw explicit connections between their code and runtime state to properly assess the correctness of their programs. However, debugging tools often decouple the program state from the source code and require explicitly invoked views to bridge the rift between program editing and program understanding. To unobtrusively reveal runtime behavior during both normal execution and debugging, we contribute techniques for visualizing program variables directly within the source code. We describe a design space and placement criteria for embedded visualizations. We evaluate our in situ visualizations in an editor for the Vega visualization grammar. Compared to a baseline development environment, novice Vega users improve their overall task grade by about 2 points when using the in situ visualizations and exhibit significant positive effects on their self-reported speed and accuracy.